Dienstag, 28. Feb 2017 -- 17:46:48

unnötige Applikationen und Dienste aus dem Autostart der Desktop-Session entfernen

Beim Einloggen in eine Linux Desktop-Umgebung werden -je nach verwendetem Desktop-System (wie z. B. LXDE, GNOME, KDE, XFce...)- in der aktuellen Session viele weitere Programme und Dienste direkt mit gestartet (Autostart).

Diese können u. U. den Start des Desktops verzögern, aber auch für andere Probleme und Phänomene die Ursache sein. Insbesondere, wenn man mehrere unterschiedliche Desktop-Umgebungen gleichzeitig installiert hat.
Als Beispiel seien hier exemplarisch die diversen Soundsysteme und -Server genannt, die fast alle Desktop-Umgebung mitbringen bzw. mitbrachten:

PulseAudio
ALSA
JACK
OSS4
ESD
Phonon
aRts

Zum Betrachten der Session- bzw. Autostart-Verwaltung verwendet man unter LXDE das Kommando lxsession-edit (unter GNOME geht dies z. B. mittels gnome-session-properties), oder man startet diese direkt aus dem Menü des verwendeten Desktop-Systems (LXDE: Einstellungen -> Desktop Session Settings).

In der Session- bzw. Autostart-Verwaltung werden die Programme festgelegt oder deaktiviert, die beim Einloggen in die Desktop-Umgebung (nicht) automatisch gestartet werden sollen. Da die Namen und Beschreibungen der Programme leider nicht immer eindeutig lokalisiert wurden, erkennt man häufig nicht auf den ersten Blick, um was für Dienste und/oder Programme es sich tatsächlich handelt.

In den Verzeichnissen /etc/xdg/autostart sowie ~/.config/autostart befinden sich die .desktop-Dateien von allen Diensten und Programmen, die potentiell in den Autostart eingebunden werden können.

Es folgt eine Aufzählung und Beschreibung der am häufigsten anzutreffenden Desktop-Dienste und Autostart-Programme auf Englisch. Diese stammt von der Seite GNOMEshell.

  • AT SPI D-Bus Bus
    AT SPI stands for Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface, a framework to integrate accessibility functions in applications. This command will create a new DBus for AT SPI specific functions.
    Command: /usr/lib/at-spi2-core/at-spi-bus-launcher –-launch-immediately
    Status: unwanted until you need the accessibility features.
    Reference: https://www.linuxfoundation.org/
  • AT SPI Registry
    The AT SPI Registry is used by applications to interact with assistive technologies and peripherals.
    Command: /usr/lib/at-spi/at-spi-registryd
    Status: unwanted until you need the accessibility features.
    Reference: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/gnome/at-spi.html
  • Bluetooth Manager
    A GNOME classic applet for the GNOME panel to provide access to bluetooth devices configuration.
    Command: bluetooth-applet
    Status: unwanted until you use GNOME fallback session and you make use of the Bluetooth technology. Unneeded for GNOME Shell users.
  • Certificate and Key Storage
    A GNOME Keyring agent which will provide access to your encryption certificates for applications.
    Command: /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon –-start –-components=pkcs11
    Status: unwanted if you don’t use encryption certificates.
  • Disk Notifications
    The Disk Utility notification is used to report disk failures using the SMART predictive technology.
    Command: /usr/lib/gnome-disk-utility/gdu-notification-daemon
    Status: recommended if your disks support the SMART, to discover incoming damages.
  • Evolution Alarm Notify
    Alarm notifier for Evolution incoming events and appointments.
    Command: /usr/lib/evolution/3.0/evolution-alarm-notify
    Status: unwanted if you don’t use the Evolution calendar alarms.
  • Files
    The nautilus file manager for desktop icons.
    Command: nautilus -n
    Status: unwanted until you choose to enable the desktop with its icons.
  • GNOME Login Sound
    Play a sound from the sound theme after the login to welcome the user. This is broken since years, I’ve checked in Fedora, Ubuntu, Debian and Arch Linux, don’t know why but every default sound theme seems to miss the required file.
    Command: /usr/bin/canberra-gtk-play –-id=”desktop-login”
    Status: unwanted until you fix the default theme and wish to hear a welcome sound.
  • GNOME Settings Daemon
    A daemon which grants access to all the GNOME system preferences.
    Command: /usr/bin/gnome-settings-daemon
    Status: recommended for everyone.
  • GPG Password Agent
    A GNOME Keyring agent which will loads your GPG keys and allow you to insert the passphrases in a graphical window when a GPG key is required during signing.
    Command: gnome-keyring-daemon –-start –-components=gpg
    Status: unwanted if you don’t use GPG keys to sign or encrypt data.
  • GSettings Data Conversion
    A conversion tool from GConf to GSettings, used to convert legacy settings into the new settings format used by GNOME 3.
    Command: gsettings-data-convert
    Status: wanted to migrate old schema configuration, its execution is really fast and light so that there’s no reason to disable it.
  • Orca Screen Reader
    The Screen reader for people with reading and sight difficulties.
    Command: orca –-no-setup –-disable main-window –-disable splash-window –-disable magnifier –-enable speech –-enable braille
    Status: unwanted until you need accessibility features for speech or braille.
  • PolicyKit Authentication Agent
    An authentication agent which will require you user or administration password when applications need to check the user privileges. This doesn’t apply to sudo/su/gksu requests.
    Command: /usr/lib/polkit-gnome/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1
    Status: recommended for everyone.
  • Power Manager
    A GNOME daemon that communicates with the hardware for proper power management, stand by, suspend and reduce power consumption by underclocking the CPU.
    Command: gnome-power-manager
    Status: recommended for everyone.
    Reference: http://projects.gnome.org/gnome-power-manager/
  • Print Queue Applet
    A print job manager for CUPS to allow the user to be notified of printing and about new plugged printers to install.
    Command: system-config-printer-applet
    Status: wanted if you use any printers.
  • PulseAudio Sound System
    The PulseAudio system offers a sound server for multiple sound sources and communicates with the underlying audio architecture (the most common in GNU/Linux are ALSA and OSS) to mix multiple audio with multiple audio cards and manage volume for each application.
    Command: start-pulseaudio-x11
    Status: recommended for everyone until you have not a sound card working.
  • PulseAudio Sound System KDE Routing
    The PulseAudio starter for KDE. GNOME users don’t require this at all.
    Command: start-pulseaudio-kde
    Status: unwanted for every GNOME users.
  • Remote Desktop
    The Vino server is a VNC server for incoming connections to the desktop, allowing others users to connect, view and operate in the desktop. This requires the Vino server was enabled in system preferences.
    Command: /usr/lib/vino/vino-server
    Status: unwanted until you’re absolutely sure what are doing.
  • Screensaver
    The screen saver relies on this component to start automatically after the desired time indicated in the system preferences. This also will lock the screen when the computer is left alone for some minutes.
    Command: gnome-screensaver
    Status: recommended for everyone until you use another screen saver application.
  • Secret Storage Service
    The GNOME Keyring components that contains the personal saved passwords for various applications (Evolution, WiFi) will be unlocked to grant the applications the right to read their saved passwords.
    Command: /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon –-start –-components=secrets
    Status: generally wanted if you save passwords into applications.
  • SSH Key Agent
    A GNOME Keyring agent for SSH which will load your SSH keys from ~/.ssh in order to grant applications access to your SSH keys.
    Command: /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon –-start –-components=ssh
    Status: unwanted if you don’t use SSH keys.
    Reference: https://live.gnome.org/GnomeKeyring/Ssh
  • Volume Control
    A GNOME classic applet for GNOME panel to let the user to arrange the volume of the audio.
    Command: gnome-sound-applet
    Status: unwanted until you use GNOME fallback session. Unneeded for GNOME Shell users.

Die nachfolgende Auflistung stammt von der Seite AskUbuntu:

  • Backup Monitor: Déjà Dup's daemon for running scheduled backups. Disable if you don't use Déjà Dup's automatic backup feature.
  • Certificate and Key Storage: GNOME Keyring: PKCS#11 Component. Don't disable. Probably you'll need the keyring. A lightweight process loads all the keyring components, so disabling this will not noticeably reduce CPU load or memory utilization.
  • Chat: Desktop service to integrate Telepathy with the messaging menu. Disable if you don't use Telepathy.
  • Desktop Sharing: GNOME Desktop Sharing Server. Actually you don't have to disable this service as it will not start unless you enable Allow other users to view your desktop in Desktop Sharing (vino-preferences).
  • Files: Nautilus process to show desktop icons. Don't disable unless you know exactly what you're doing.
  • GPG Password Agent: GNOME Keyring: GPG Agent. Don't disable. Probably you'll need the keyring. A lightweight process loads all the keyring components, so disabling this will not noticeably reduce CPU load or memory utilization.
  • GSettings Data Conversion: Migrates user settings from GConf to dconf. GConf is a configuration database system for storing application preferences. Don't disable.
  • Indicator Application: An indicator to take menus from applications and place them in the panel. Don't disable or you'll probably lose some functionality.
  • Mount Helper: Automount and autorun plugged devices. If you disable this service you'll have to manually mount removable storage (flash drives, CD-ROM drives, etc.).
  • Network: NetworkManager applet to manage your network connections. You'll probably need it to connect to a wired/wireless network. Don't disable unless you use the command line to connect to a network or if you put your network configuration in the interfaces file.
  • Onboard: Simple On-screen Keyboard. Actually you don't have to disable this service as it will not start unless you enable On Screen Keyboard in System Setting -> Universal Access -> Typing tab.
  • Orca screen reader: Scriptable screen reader. Actually you don't have to disable this service as it will not start unless you enable Screen Reader in System Setting -> Universal Access -> Seeing tab.
  • Personal File Sharing: User level public file sharing via WebDAV or ObexFTP. Actually you don't have to disable this service as it will not start unless you enable Share public files on network in Personal File Sharing.
  • PolicyKit Authentication Agent: Provides a D-Bus session bus service that is used to bring up authentication dialogs used for obtaining privileges. You'll need this to perform task that require privilege elevation. Don't disable.
  • PulseAudio Sound System: You'll need this service unless you don't want any sound coming out of the speakers.
  • Secret Storage Service: GNOME Keyring: Secret Service. Don't disable. Probably you'll need the keyring. A lightweight process loads all the keyring components, so disabling this will not noticeably reduce CPU load or memory utilization.
  • SSH Key Agent: GNOME Keyring: SSH Agent. Don't disable. Probably you'll need the keyring. A lightweight process loads all the keyring components, so disabling this will not noticeably reduce CPU load or memory utilization.
  • Update Notifier: Check for available updates automatically. Disable only if you want to check for updates manually.
  • User folders update: Update common folders names to match current locale. It doesn't keep running in background, it only checks if the folders names (Documents, Videos, etc.) match the selected language and rename them if they don't. It is not worthy to be disabled.
  • Zeitgeist Datahub: A daemon which centralizes all passive data sources into a single process, and interfaces between said data sources (also known as loggers) and zeitgeist-daemon (with which it communicates via D-Bus). If you disable this service Dash search will not work. Don't disable unless you know exactly what you're doing.